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Availability: In stock
305pp. ¦ $94 £79 €87
The Predictive Processing Theory of Mind is a recent theory developed by philosophers, cognitive scientists, and neuroscientists about the nature and function of the brain and its role in creating the conscious mind that we humans, and perhaps some non-human animals, have. The authors that advanced those lines of research believe that there is a fundamental idea that has been overlooked in the research done about the brain until the present: that the brain is a prediction machine with the function of creating hypotheses about the causes of our sensory signals and predictions of possible future sensory signals. Moreover, the internal models of the world created this way are constantly challenged by incorporating the errors of the previous models into new models. From this point of view, the brain's work could be described as a process of making predictions about the upcoming sensory data based on its best current models of the causes of those data. This book intends to critically analyze this theory and its subsequent theoretical and empirical consequences. To achieve that, the volume brings together some of the best experts on Predictive Processing – such as Thomas Metzinger, Wanja Wiese, or Mark Miller – with the goal of presenting some of the advantages of this approach but also some of its caveats.
Anthony Walsh, Boise State University
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115pp. ¦ $50 £40 €45
This book examines intelligence as it applies to various facets of human life. It explores the evolutionary origin of intelligence and the genetics and neurobiology of intelligence. Every human being is intelligent, but some are more intelligent than others. We know this both by observing different people’s behavior and position in life and by their different intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. Most of the business of life can be conducted on a basis of habit, with little need for exceptional intelligence, which is irrelevant for many day-to-day pursuits. However, people of higher intelligence do much better in life than those of lower intelligence in so many ways. They attain higher social class, better physical and mental health, are less likely to be criminals, and many other things. IQ tests measure different cognitive abilities, but there is a factor common to them all that psychometricians call Spearman's g, or simply g. What this means is that in tasks that tax the brain, however different they may be from one another, if a person is good at one mental task, he or she is likely to be good at others, although not necessarily to the same degree.
Availability: In stock
300pp. ¦ $80 £69 €74
In a human system, a major proportion of behavioral attributes and values are determined by respective cultures and interaction with other cultures. Cultural and cross-cultural psychology has emerged as an interdisciplinary area that explores how a culture regulates society and its business, how cross-cultural interactions affect the psychologies of individuals as well as societies, behavioral variability under various cultural conditions, and how to harmonize cultural diversities. Organizationally and philosophically, cultural and cross-cultural psychology differs from other areas of social sciences. It is a common phenomenon that as people engaged with cultural practices, their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors come to reflect their cultural values and beliefs. As a process, people formulate, replicate, transform, and/or transmit their cultural practices in their daily social and/or business interactions. This edited book ‘Handbook of Research on Cultural and Cross-cultural Psychology’ is focused on dynamics that amplify knowledge, skills, and behaviors relevant to deal with different cultural and cross-cultural issues. All the chapters suggest that ‘relevance’ and ‘being critical’ are qualities widely attributed to efforts that fill the gaps between theory and practice in cultural and cross-cultural psychology.
Behavior Analytic Approaches to Promote Enjoyable Mealtimes for Autistics/Individuals Diagnosed with Autism and their Families
Joseph H. Cihon, Endicott College; Autism Partnership Foundation et al.
Availability: In stock
396pp. ¦ $96 £79 €90
It has been estimated that 70% to 90% of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience mealtime challenges (Volkert & Vaz, 2010). Most approaches to the treatment of mealtime challenges have focused on decreasing interfering mealtime behaviors through escape extinction (i.e., requiring consumption of food prior to meal termination) and other approaches that may be perceived as punitive by parents, individuals diagnosed with ASD, and other stakeholders. In recent years, there has been an increase in research on promoting enjoyable mealtimes for individuals diagnosed with ASD and their families. The purpose of this edited book is to provide a comprehensive review of these approaches for improving mealtime behaviors for individuals diagnosed with ASD, provide clinical recommendations for improving mealtime behaviors, and identify areas for future research.
Richard A. Dienstbier, University of Nebraska
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269pp. ¦ $69 £50 €57
"Food for Thought: Nutrition and the Aging Brain" presents and analyzes the research on nutrition’s impacts on the aging brain, on possibly-declining cognitive abilities, and on changing emotional dispositions. With 40 pages of references, the depth of coverage of the underlying science makes the book appropriate for scientists in fields such as nutrition, geriatrics, and psychology. However, the book was also designed to be understandable for lay readers wanting a deeper understanding than can be found in typical books on food-brain relationships. To make this book useful for non-scientists and for students, the first three chapters provide background. They sketch relevant brain structure and neurochemistry, and then discuss in only slightly more detail how aging and stress affect neurochemistry, brain structure, cognitive capacities, and resilience. The third chapter introduces basic nutrition research issues, and the extensive Glossary provides additional explanations of scientific concepts. The subsequent 14 chapters consolidate modern research on impacts of nutrition on brain and cognitive capacities. The research shows how much various nutrients can affect cognition in aging people, and then how those impacts are achieved—that is, how genes are affected that in turn have impacts on neural structures and neurochemistry. That series of 14 chapters begins with analyses of general diets such as the Mediterranean and the MIND, but subsequent chapters examine impacts of specific classes of nutrients. Chapter 18 describes nutrition that affects resilience, interpreted as stress tolerance, and resistance to both anxiety and depression. Chapter 19 describes how other types of activities that affect brain and cognition, such as programs of physical exercise and cognitive stimulation, can interact with nutrition to build brain and sharpen cognition. The final chapter summarizes the information on nutrition impacts on brain and cognition, and extends the discussion of interactions of nutrition with other brain-enhancing activities.